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Electron Microscopy Sciences

ImmunoGold Reagents

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arrow13Aurion ImmunoGold Reagents

Aurion Immunogold

 

arrow12Conventional ImmunoGold Reagents

 

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Conventional Immunogold Reagents are available in four size classes. The monodisperse size population makes the conjugates suited for multiple labeling with no overlap. The Conventional Immunogold Reagents are the classical conjugates in immuno electron microscopy; they are a good choice when the antigen is abundant and the accessibility of the antigen is relatively good.

Introduction

The conventional labeling approach in transmission and scanning electron microscopy utilizes secondary immunogold reagents based on particles that can be observed without enhancement. These conjugates are suited for single and multiple labeling in electron microscopy, when the number of antigens available for binding is such that a relevant signal can be obtained.

The AURION Conventional Immunogold Reagents are built around colloidal gold particles with sizes of 6, 10, 15 or 25 nm. The particle population is monodisperse and thus shows minimal size variation and overlap. Typically, the coefficient of variance for the 6 and 25 nm particle size conjugates is less than 12%, whereas the 10 and 15 nm size conjugates show less then 10% variation.

The table below lists a few physical characteristics of gold conjugates.

Particle Diameter #Au atoms MWt.(daltons) #particles/ ml    #Ab/(part.)
6 nm  6500    1.3·106   2.4·1013    1-2
10 nm  30·103  6·106    5·1012   7-12
15 nm  100·103 20·106 1.5·1012 25-40
25 nm  470·103 92·106 3.3·1011    115-180   

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Immunolabeling of the periplasmic space in ultrathin cryosections of Escherichia coli with a protein A gold conjugate. Courtesy M. de Jong

Features of Conventional Immuno Gold Reagents

  • for single and multiple labeling
  • gold particle sizes of 6, 10 ,15 and 25 nm
  • monodisperse particle population
  • minimal size variation and overlap
  • OD520 nm of 1.0 to warrant cluster free storage
  • coefficient of variance: <12% for the 6 and 25 nm conjugates and <10% for the 10 and 15 nm conjugates

Product Description

AURION Conventional Immunogold Reagents are tailored to contain 10-20 µg of specific protein/ml. The reagents are supplied in PBS with 1% Bovine Serum Albumin and 15 mM NaN3 at an OD520nm of 1.0 to warrant prolonged cluster free storage. The activity of each lot is determined using a dot-spot test system as described by Moeremans et al., J. Immunol. Methods, 74, (1984), 353. Actual lot specifications (size, variation and expiry date) are indicated on the accompanying package insert.

Regular package: for the labeling of 1000-2000 grids

Small package: for the labeling of 400-800 grids

Specificity

Aurion offers the widest range of Conventional Immunogold Reagents. To view the complete list of available reagents click here.

AURION Conventional Immunogold Reagents are prepared using the highest quality antibodies or binding agents available. All antibodies are immuno affinity purified and immuno cross-adsorbed to reduce non-specific reactions.

Storage

AURION Conventional Immunogold Reagents have a guaranteed shelf life of 18 months from the date of quality control analysis.

The products should be stored at 4-8°C. Freezing is not recommended.

Technical Tip

Conventional ImmunoGold Reagents Application Instructions

aurionarrow12Ultra Small ImmunoGold Reagents

Aurion Ultra Small Immunogold Reagents are prepared with subnanometer gold particles. These particles have far less influence on the adsorbed antibodies or detecting molecules, and consequently the conjugates behave as though they are uncoupled. In conjunction with the highly efficient and easy-to-use R-Gent SE-LM and SE-EM silver enhancement reagents, the Ultra Small Immunogold Reagents are the best choice for any application.

Introduction

Reduction of the gold particle size provides Ultra Small Immunogold Reagents with fundamentally different characteristics when compared with conjugates built around larger particles. While the Conventional Immunogold Reagents can be thought of as particles coated with proteins, Ultra Small Immunogold Reagents are proteins coated with one or more gold particles. With this structure, both the overall size of the conjugates, as well as steric hindrance are decreased.

The table below lists a few physical characteristics of gold conjugates.

Gold Conjugate Physical Characteristics

Particle Diameter   #Au atoms  MWt. (daltons)   #/ml   #Ab/ (particle)
0.8 nm 15   3·103 5·1015     0.1-1?
6.0 nm 6500 1.3·106 2.4·1013    1-2
10 nm 0·103   6·106  5·1012    7-12

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The small gold particles also have a tight particle surface curvature which makes it less likely that a structured water dipole layer will build-up around the gold particles. Hence, the hydrodynamic radius of the ultra small gold colloids is reduced. Finally, small gold particles carry less net negative charge; thus, they undergo less charge determined repulsion when approaching the sample surface.

Aurion offers Ultra Small Immunogold Reagents with an average gold particle diameter of 0.8 nm or less. These ultra small gold particles can be visualized directly in high angle annular dark-field-scanning TEM. However, the gold signal is normally visualized after increasing the particle diameter with silver enhancement. The reagents can be used in electron and light microscopy as well as in blotting experiments. The universal applicability makes it easy to compare results obtained with different procedures.

Product Description

AURION Ultra Small Immunogold Reagents contain 60-80 µg of specific protein/ml for IgG conjugates. F(ab')2, Fab and biotinylated albumin conjugates contain equimolar amounts of conjugated protein. The average gold cluster diameter is less than 0.8 nm.

AURION Ultra Small Immunogold Reagents are used in conjunction with AURION R-Gent SE-EM or SE-LM silver enhancement reagents, developed for electron microscopy and light microscopy/immunoblotting respectively.

The reagents are supplied in PBS with 1% Bovine Serum Albumin and 15 mM NaN3.

The activity of each lot is determined using a dot-spot test system as described by Moeremans et al., J. Immunol. Methods, 74, (1984), 353.

The products are available in two package sizes:

  • Regular package: for 1200 grids or 600 slides
  • Small package: for 480 grids or 240 slides.

Specificity

Aurion offers the widest range of Ultra Small Immunogold Reagents. The most commonly used reagent types are available as intact IgG, F(ab')2 and Single Fab conjugates. To view the complete list of available reagents click here.

AURION Ultra Small Immunogold Reagents are prepared using the highest quality antibodies or binding agents available. All antibodies are immuno affinity purified and immuno cross-adsorbed to reduce non-specific interactions.

Storage

AURION Immunogold Reagents have a guaranteed shelf life of 18 months from the date of quality control analysis.

The products should be stored at 4-8°C. Freezing is not recommended.

Technical Tip

Ultra Small ImmunoGold Application Instructions
Why Ultra Small Gold Conjugates

arrow12Blocking Solutionsaurion

The signal-to-noise ratio determines the quality of any detection experiment. This ratio is in principle determined by the characteristics of specimen and detection reagents. With adequate blocking and incubation media, background reactions are minimized whereas specific reactions are not hampered.

Aurion has developed Blocking Solutions which effectively block 'sticky' surfaces by multi-point hydrophobic and charge-based interactions. The Blocking Solutions are specifically designed to meet the characteristics of each type of secondary conjugate.

N-Cadherin detection in heart muscles

Immunofluorescence using Alexa 568 labeled Fab goat antimouse. For reasons of comparability areas of specific labeling are pictured with similar density (arrowheads).

Left hand panel: Background using a commonly used protocol obscures sites of specific labeling.

Right hand panel: N-Cadherin immunolabelled area obtained using Aurion Blocking Solution and BSA-c™ stand out with much clearer definition.

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Courtesy of Lauren Hruby and John Harris; Dept. Physiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Introduction

The AURION Blocking Solutions are used to prevent immunoreagents from binding non-specifically to specimens with "sticky" surface properties.

Procedures to eliminate background comprise three main steps:

  • To suppress residual aldehyde activity
  • To saturate multipoint hydrophobic moieties and positive charges with high molecular weight compounds such as those present in the AURION Blocking Solutions
  • To reduce aspecific binding of immunoreagents caused by hydrophilic interaction with competing molecules in the incubation and washing solution. AURION BSA-c™ is a particularly effective reagent for this purpose.

These steps should be balanced for optimum results.

Product Description

AURION Blocking Solutions are prepared using specially selected compounds. All ruminant proteins are obtained from healthy livestock.

AURION Blocking solutions contain Bovine Serum Albumin and Cold Water Fish Skin Gelatine in phosphate buffered saline with sodium azide as preservative. Normal serum may have been added as indicated on the label. The blocking capacity of each lot is determined using a dot-spot test system as described by Moeremans et al., J. Immunol. Methods 74, (1984), 353.

Each package contains 30 ml of solution. It accommodates 300 specimens for light microscopy at 100 µl/specimen (~ 3 drops), or 1000 EM grids at 30 µl/specimen (~ 1 drop).

Specificity

Blocking Solutions are available in the following specificities:

  • serum-free: for use with Protein A and Protein G Gold conjugates.
  • with Normal Goat serum: for use with reagents based on secondary antibodies raised in Goat.
  • with Normal Rabbit serum: for use with reagents based on secondary antibodies raised in Rabbit.
  • with Normal Sheep serum: for use with reagents based on secondary antibodies raised in Sheep.
  • with Normal Donkey serum: for use with reagents based on secondary antibodies raised in Donkey.

Storage

AURION Blocking Solutions have a guaranteed shelf life of 18 months from the date of quality control analysis.

The products should be stored at 4-8°C. Freezing is not recommended.

Technical Tip

Blocking Solutions Application Instructions

arrow12Incubation Solution Additive AURION BSA-c™

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In the blocking step, hydrophobic moieties causing "stickiness" in the specimen surface are rendered hydrophilic to minimize background. Nevertheless, the more dynamic charge-based interaction between the specimen surface and immunoreagents also needs to be controlled in order to eliminate background.

Aurion has developed BSA-c™, a unique incubation buffer additive with an unparalleled ability to effectively prevent charge based background. BSA-c™ is prepared by acetylation of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Polycationic sites in the specimen interact readily with negatively charged acetylated BSA molecules. This significantly reduces the risk that such sites might bind negatively-charged immunoreagents and immunogold conjugates and thus reduces the risk of background.

Introduction

Procedures to eliminate background comprise three main steps:

  1. To suppress residual aldehyde activity
  2. To saturate multipoint hydrophobic moieties and positive charges with high molecular weight compounds such as those present in the AURION Blocking Solutions
  3. To reduce non-specific binding of immunoreagents caused by hydrophilic interaction with competing molecules in the incubation and washing solution.

AURION BSA-c™ is a particularly effective reagent for this purpose.

AURION BSA-c™ is a buffer additive that helps prevent immunodetection reagents (i.e. primary antibodies and secondary reagents) from binding nonspecifically to charged moieties within the specimen. Thus, it suppresses background competitively with little or no effect on the specific reaction. Its successful application is not limited to immunogold detections but it is equally efficient in fluorescent and enzyme-based detection systems. AURION BSA-c™ concentrations as low as 0.01-0.1% inhibit binding of  gold conjugate to polycationic poly-l-lysine coated grids almost completely (>99%).

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The surface properties of the specimen can be simplified by division into four compartments:

- negatively charged (polyanions, proteins, especially after aldehyde fixation, lipids);

0 neutral;

+ positively charged (histone proteins, polycations) and H hydrophobic (lipids, fat droplets, resins). After an appropriate blocking step these areas are covered with blocking compounds.

In low ionic strength media negatively charged antibodies and gold conjugates are repulsed by negatively charged specimen areas which frequently may contain the antigens to be detected. Background does not likely occur in such areas. The positively charged areas attract antibodies and gold conjugates potentially leading to background. In a moderate ionic strength incubation solution, repulsion and attraction are diminished due to the presence of ions. The negatively charged BSA-c™ competes with the negatively charged antibodies and gold reagents for non-specific binding to the positively charged specimen compounds, thus reducing background to the greatest possible extent without interfering with antigen detection.

Product Description

AURION BSA-c™ concentrated solution contains acetylated bovine serum albumin as the functional constituent. By acetylation of amines on basic amino acids these groups are no longer as easily protonated and the isoelectric point of such molecules is lowered and hydrophobicity is increased. BSA-c™ is a 10% solution of acetylated BSA at slightly alkaline pH with Kathon CG as preservative. The bovine serum albumin that Aurion uses to prepare BSA-c™ is obtained from healthy livestock.

The charge dependent background inhibition capacity of the BSA-c™ in each lot is determined using a dot-spot test system with polycationic compounds.

Two package volumes are available which yield 1.5 - 3 and 5 -10 litres of incubation buffer respectively

Storage

AURION BSA-c™ concentrate has a guaranteed shelf life of 18 months from the date of quality control analysis. The products should be stored at 4-8°C. Freezing is not recommended.

Technical Tip

Incubation Solution Additive AURION BSA-c™
Controlling Background in Immunogold Labeling

arrow12BSA/CWFS/Tween 20/Normal Sera

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Many compounds have been added empirically to immunolabeling solutions for the purpose of minimizing background staining. Based on years of experience and controlled testing, Aurion has selected a group of compounds that are proven to be the most effective in their background reduction action. Researchers can obtain these items separately from Aurion and prepare blocking and incubation media to suit the needs of their own protocols.

Introduction

The ready-to-use Blocking Solutions and the incubation media additive BSA-c™ are tuned for optimum background prevention and signal-to-noise ratio. In-depth information can be found in the respective product data sheets.

AURION also offers a number of components that allow researchers to formulate blocking, incubation and wash solutions according to the needs of their own experiments.

Product Description

Aurion's Bovine Serum Albumin is obtained from healthy livestock. BSA should be dissolved in an appropriate buffer, such as phosphate buffered saline, taking care not to denature the protein by foaming. The addition of BSA may cause a drop in pH of the final solution and correction may be required. As a preservative the use of NaN­3 or Kathon CG is recommended.

The use of Cold Water Fish Skin Gelatin to prevent background reactions has been recommended by e.g. Behnke et al. (J. Cell Biol. 41, [1986], 386). The product is supplied as a liquid concentrate (40%).

Tween-20™ is a non-ionic detergent with a molecular weight of about 600 and a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 0.06-0.07% in water at room temperature. Its working mechanism may in part be based on its action as a detergent, binding to the hydrophobic moieties of water insoluble compounds, rendering them hydrophilic. In addition, immuno-compounds may become incorporated into micelles when the Tween-20™ concentration is higher than the CMC, for instance at 0.1 % in PBS at pH 7.4.

Normal sera are used to counteract the non-specific interaction between the sample and immunoglobulins. They can be added to the blocking solution and the incubation media.

As a rule the normal serum species should be the same as the secondary antibody species (e.g. use normal goat serum with goat-anti-rabbit conjugates).

Note: normal sera should not be used in combination with Protein A and Protein G gold reagents.

Storage

The products should be stored at 4-8°C.

Freezing is not recommended.

Technical Tip

Application Instructions for Solutions with BSA, CWFS, and Normal Sera

arrow12R-Gent SE-EM Silver Enhancement Reagents

aurionFor most applications the detection of ultra small gold particles in electron microscopy requires a particle enhancement procedure. Danscher's method has always been the standard for this purpose and for a long time attempts to improve the features of Danscher's system met with only limited success.

The goal in the development of AURION R-Gent SE-EM was to create a new system with enhancement efficiency and homogeneity at least comparable to Danscher's method, but with reduced acidity and light sensitivity. In addition, the reagents should have low viscosity for the suitability in pre-embedding immunogold labeling.

Introduction

The silver enhancement reaction is a gold particle-catalyzed reduction in which silver ions are reduced to metallic silver with a photographic developing compound as the electron source. In addition in many applications a "protective colloid" is added to the enhancement solution to limit diffusion of reagents to the gold particle surface, thus providing a means for controlling particle growth.

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"...silver enhancement reaction is a gold particle-catalyzed reduction in which silver ions are reduced to metallic silver with a photographic developing compound as the electron source.."

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Desmin labeling in heart muscle with Ultra Small Gold conjugate and AURION R-Gent SE-EM. Courtesy Prof. Dr. Müller Höcker, University Munich, FRG.


Product Description

AURION R-Gent SE-EM is a high efficiency silver enhancement reagent for electron microscopy. It intensifies the gold particles by homogeneous deposition of metallic silver on the particle surface. The resulting electron dense signal is easily detected and is compatible with heavy metal counterstaining. The reagent has extremely delayed auto-nucleation and can be used under standard laboratory light conditions. It also has low viscosity, which is especially advantageous for pre-embedding immunogold applications. The enhancement mixture has a pH of 8.1-8.2.

AURION R-Gent SE-EM has been tested ntensively for the enhancement of AURION Ultra Small Immunogold reagents.

AURION R-Gent SE-EM is available in a kit containing the following:

  • 30 ml or 90 ml of ready-to-use ENHANCER,
  • 3 ml of concentrated INITIATOR and
  • 30 ml of ACTIVATOR.
  • a 3 ml empty dropping bottle, labeled "DEVELOPER".

The INITIATOR is a concentrated solution which must be diluted and activated before use, using the ACTIVATOR. This resulting mixture is the DEVELOPER.

The now ready-to-use DEVELOPER has a shelf life of one month. It is suggested to prepare fresh DEVELOPER at least every month.

The undiluted solutions have a shelf life of 10 months when stored at 4°C. INITIATOR can be stored at -20°C for prolonged shelf life.

For enhancement one drop of DEVELOPER is mixed with 20 drops of ENHANCER. The typical enhancement time is between 20 and 40 minutes. Specimens may be contrasted according to standard procedures.

The kit with 30 ml of ENHANCER accomodates up to 1000 EM grid specimens. The kit with 90 ml of ENHANCER is suitable for pre-embedding immunogold labeling; the number of specimens it accomodates depends on the volume of reagent used per specimen.

For each lot, the specific enhancement activity and level of autonucleation are monitored by spectrophotometric techniques.

Storage

The AURION R-Gent SE-EM components are stored at 4°C and allowed to reach room temperature before use. SE-EM INITIATOR may be stored at -20°C for prolonged shelf life.

Technical Tip

R-Gent Silver Enhancement Reagents Application Instructions (R-Gent SE-EM for Electron Microscopy section)

arrow12R-Gent SE-LM Silver Enhancement Reagents

aurionThe Immunogold Silver Staining technique (IGSS) finds application both at the electron microscope and the light microscope level. In addition the technique is used to identify proteins or nucleic acids after blotting.

Light microscopical and macroscopical visualization of the latent gold signal requires an enhancement system that renders a high contrast signal. Light insensitivity and negligible autonucleation are required for ease of handling and low background. AURION R-Gent SE-LM is a two-component reagent that meets these requirements.

Introduction

The silver enhancement reaction is based on the gold particle catalyzed reduction of Ag+ to metallic silver using photographic developing compounds as the electron source. For light microscopy and immunoblotting applications the generated silver signal should be of high contrast. Furthermore the signal should be permanent and compatible with counterstaining.

Product Description

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Light microscopy evaluation of tubulin labeling with Ultra Small Immunogold Reagents and silver enhancement.

Upper panel: bright field mode

Lower panel: epi-polarization mode

The AURION R-GENT SE-LM components constitute a Silver Enhancement Reagent which increases the average gold cluster or particle size by deposition of metallic silver facilitating detection at the light microscopical level. The generated brown-black signal is also easily detected in bio assays and is compatible with counterstaining in light microscopy. AURION R-GENT SE-LM has been tailored for the enhancement of AURION Ultra Small Immunogold reagents and is equally suited for the larger sized particles in the AURION Conventional Immunogold reagents.

For enhancement, equal amounts of the DEVELOPER and ENHANCER are mixed well and applied to the specimen. The enhancement mixture is easy-to-use, exhibits extremely delayed auto-nucleation and can be used under standard laboratory light conditions. Typical enhancement times are between 15 and 30 minutes. Auto-nucleation becomes visible only after 40-60 minutes. Light microscopical specimens may be counterstained according to standard procedures. The enhancement mixture has a pH value of 8.3-8.5.

AURION R-GENT SE-LM is available as a kit in two unit sizes (2 x 30 ml or 2 x 250 ml) and consists of a separate DEVELOPER and ENHANCER. The supplied amounts accomodate 600 and 5000 LM specimens respectively at 100 µl/specimen, or 60 and 500 bio assay specimens at 1 ml/specimen. The reactivity is tested on dot-spots and the absence of autonucleation is monitored by spectrophotometric techniques.

Storage

The AURION R-GENT SE-LM components are stored at 4°C and allowed to reach room temperature before use.

Technical Tip

R-Gent Silver Enhancement Reagents Application Instructions (R-Gent SE-LM for Light Microscopy section)

Col-Aurionarrow12Colloidal Gold Based Protein Stain

Col-Aurion is a colloidal gold particle based total protein stain, developed for the sensitive staining of electrophoretically separated protein bands on nitrocellulose or PVDF™ blotting membranes. Colloidal gold particles accumulate at the site of the protein bands on the membrane, generating an intense dark red staining pattern. The total protein stain assists in assessing immunoblotting results and to evaluate the effectivity of the blotting procedure.

Introduction

The negative surface charge of colloidal gold particles is responsible for their high affinity for positively charged macromolecules. This characteristic was the basis for the development of a total protein stain based on colloidal gold.

Product Description

Col-Aurion is a total protein stain consisting of a solution of coated gold particles with an average particle diameter of 15 nm. The staining principle is based on the electrostatic binding of negatively charged gold particles to proteins with a positive charge present at low pH.

A unique feature of Col-Aurion is the use of BSA-c™ to shield off the surface of the gold particles. Destabilization of gold particles that might occur as a result of interaction with detached protein is thus prevented. The strong negative charge of BSA-c™ gives an additional increase in sensitivity of the stain.

Col-Aurion total protein stain has a pH of 3.2 and is ready to use. For removal of surplus of weakly bound protein from the membrane, a 10 ml vial of Tween-20™ is included.

Storage

Col-Aurion has a guaranteed shelf life of 18 months from the date of quality control analysis. Store at 4-8°C. Do not freeze.

Technical Tip

Col-Aurion

arrow12Gold Sols

aurionTo prepare a high quality (immuno)gold conjugate it is important to have particles with uniform size and highly adsorptive surfaces.

The Aurion gold sols are prepared according to unique production protocols. This provides for sol particles with the same narrow size distribution and adsorption properties as employed in the Conventional Immunogold Reagents.

Introduction

The preparation of conventional gold reagents is based on gold particles with a diameter suited for direct electron microscopic visualization. Aurion offers a range of Conventional Immunogold Reagents which cover the majority of approaches in transmission and scanning electron microscopy.

Aurion Gold Sols (solutions of high quality unconjugated gold particles) provide opportunities for users to prepare conjugates with primary antibodies, ligands and other binding agents with the same particle characteristics as in the Conventional Immunogold Reagents.

6 nm aurion
10 nm
15 nm
25 nm
Particle size and size distributions of the AURION Gold Sols

 

Product Description

AURION Gold Sols are prepared according to a unique protocol, warranting narrow size distribution and reproducible adsorption characteristics.

The AURION gold sols are available in the same size range as the Conventional Immunogold Reagents: 6, 10, 15 and 25 nm. The particle population is monodisperse and thus shows minimal size variation and overlap. Typically, the coefficient of variance for the 6 and 25 nm particle size sols is less than 12%, whereas the 10 and 15 nm size sols show less then 10% variation. Actual lot specifications (size, variation and expiry date) are indicated on the accompanying package insert.

Package size: 100 ml of high quality gold sol at an OD520nm of approximately 1.

Storage

AURION gold sols have a guaranteed shelf life of 12 months from the date of quality control analysis.

The products should be stored at 4-8°C.

Freezing is not recommended.

aurionarrow12Gold Tracers

Aurion Gold Tracers are used to visualize charged moieties in specimens: anionic tracers bind to polycationic moieties (basic proteins e.g. histones, cationic tracers bind to polyanionic moieties (membranes, acidic proteins). "Neutral" BSA coated gold tracers are useful for detecting open connections and tissue damage. Under proper conditions and with suitable microscopical techniques the tracers can also be used to follow cellular events in time.

Introduction

The AURION Anionic and Cationic Gold Tracers are designed to detect charged areas; the anionic tracers detecting multiple positive charge moieties, the cationic tracers detecting multiple negative charges.

Product description

The AURION Gold Tracers are available in the full range of particle sizes: Ultra Small, 6, 10, 15 and 25 nm. Anionic Gold Tracers are prepared with BSA-c™ as particle conjugated protein. Cationic Gold Tracers are prepared with methylated BSA. AURION Gold Tracers are available in 5 and 10 ml volume packages and are supplied at an OD520nm of 2.0 for the conventional particle size range and at equivalent OD for the Ultra Small tracers.
The products are supplied in PBS, with 15 mM NaN3.

AURION Gold Tracers are also available in bulk and at different optical density if required.

AURION Gold Tracers are shipped containing NaN3 as preservative. If they are intended for use in living organisms, the preservative has to be removed prior to use. This can be achieved either by dialysis or by buffer exchange using for instance a Pharmacia PD-10 column.

Storage

Aurion gold tracers have a guaranteed shelf life of 18 months from the date of quality control analysis.

The products should be stored at 4-8°C.

Freezing is not recommended.

Technical Tip

Gold Tracers Application Instructions

Micrographs arrow13arrow13