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Electron Microscopy Sciences

Microanalysis Element Standards

Downloadable PDFarrow13Auger Electron Microscopy MAC – Reference Materials

Auger Electron Microscopy (AES) reference blocksMAC has developed multi-element blocks of reference materials suitable for the compilation of a reference library of Auger sensitivity factors when used with the Auger Electron Microscopy (AES).

(Auger electron: one of the electrons ejected from an atom as a result of the internal conversion of its own X-ray in the auger effect. Auger effect: a process in which an atom singly ionized by emitting one electron with energy in the X-ray range instead of emitting the usual X-ray photon on recovery undergoes a transition in which a second electron is emitted).

A carefully selected range of elements or compounds will enable the surface analyst to compile a valuable reference library of spectra for those materials of specific interest to his field of study. AES is of particular value in the investigation of the surface chemistry of electronic materials. A set of 33 relevant reference materials is designed for this purpose.

A Faraday Cup, for the accurate measurement of specimen current, is available as an option on all reference blocks.

Multi-element blocks containing up to 50 reference materials can be made to suit the configuration of the most instrument but, the actual number of materials and the shape and size of the reference block is determined by the physical limitations imposed by the specimen holder and chamber. The reference material each has an exposed area about 2 square mm.

Each block of reference material is made from AISI 304 grade austenitic stainless steel, set with elements and compounds of your choice and polished to a 1⁄4 micron diamond finish. All blocks are supplied with certificates of analysis and a map showing the locations of the reference materials.The design of the reference blocks for AES is based upon that used for the production of our already established range of electron probes X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) standard blocks.

For surface analysis in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environments, the design of the AES blocks has three significant differences over the EPMA blocks:

  • For EPMA, the reference standards are set into drilled brass blocks. However, for UHV, the brass would outgas, so non-magnetic stainless steel is used for the AES reference blocks.
  • There is no coating of electrically conductive carbon on the AES blocks. For EPMA, this coating is needed to neutralize any electron beam induced charge.
  • EPMA standards are mounted using epoxy resin, which would rapidly outgas under UHV conditions. The AES reference blocks are set with Wood's Fusible Metal. This is an alloy of bismuth, lead, tin, and cadmium.

Wood's Metal, being electrically conductive, also serves as an electrical connection between the reference material and the stainless steel block thereby dissipating any electrical charge. However, some of the reference materials are electrical insulators, so there must be charge neutralized using a high specimen tilt angle or a lower primary beam accelerating potential.

The results of using Wood's Fusible Metal as a mounting compound as follows:

  • Out gassing: The chamber base pressure immediately prior to block admission was 6.4x10-10 bar. After 24 hours, the chamber pressure was 8.0x10-10 bar. This is the pressure that would be expected
    for a typical sample. Thus, the Wood's Metal is acceptable as a mounting compound for the blocks of reference materials.
  • Electron Beam Damage: No appreciable electron beam induced damage of the Wood's Metal was noted despite prolonged exposure to a beam of 10kV and 0.3 micro Amps.
  • Contamination: After the removal of Atmospheric contamination from the reference materials using a rastered argon ion gun, no evidence of cross-contamination by the Wood's Metal was found above a
    detection limit of 1 atomic weight %.

WARNING: The block of reference materials should not be baked prior to analysis.Wood's Metal melts at about 70°C and also, because of its high vapor pressure, cadmium vapor would be liberated into the
specimen chamber.

A comprehensive library of spectra could be used to establish the relative contribution of various elements in an unknown sample by the application of a peak stripping routine.

For those AES instruments equipped with a solid state energy dispersive X-ray detector, a multi-element block of reference materials will enable the analyst to calibrate the E.D. system. (The problem
associated with the charging of any electrically insulating materials must be taken into consideration before attempting this calibration).

This ability to analyze an unknown sample using the E.D. system to gain prior knowledge of the elemental composition will ensure that the correct peak positions are set before depth profiling by AES.
Acknowledgment: The investigation was carried out on a JEOL-10S by Dr. M.D. Hill of British Telecom Research Laboratories, Martlesham Heath, Suffolk.


Please supply the following information when ordering:

  1. Make and model of instrument in which the reference materials are to be used.
  2. Specify quantity and reference materials required.
  3. Dimensions of the block (with drawing is preferred).
  4. Whether a Faraday Cup is required.
  5. Any limitation of the X and Y movements of the stage.

Delivery is normally 3-4 weeks from receipt of the order.

arrow12A. Multi Element Block

80095-05 Block of 5 Standards Set 1,300.00 Add to Cart
80095-10 Block of 10 Standards Set 1,900.00 Add to Cart
80095-15 Block of 15 Standards Set 2,650.00 Add to Cart
80095-20 Block of 20 Standards Set 3,350.00 Add to Cart
80095-25 Block of 25 Standards Set 3,960.00 Add to Cart
80095-30 Block of 30 Standards Set 4,585.00 Add to Cart
80095-35 Block of 35 Standards Set 5,000.00 Add to Cart
80095-40 Block of 40 Standards Set 5,700.00 Add to Cart
80095-45 Block of 45 Standards Set 6,000.00 Add to Cart
80095-50 Block of 50 Standards Set 6,518.00 Add to Cart
80062 Faraday Cup Set 250.00 Add to Cart
80095-481 SRM 481 Au/Ag Set of 6 Standards Set 925.00 Add to Cart
80095-482 SRM 482 Au/Cu Set of 6 Standards Set 925.00 Add to Cart
80095-483 SRM 483 Fe-Si Set 210.00 Add to Cart
80095-1872 SRM 1872 Set of 3 glasses Set 625.00 Add to Cart

arrow12B. Electronics Materials Set:

Set comprises of 33 materials:

Ag GaP Bi2Te3 Si Ag2Te Zn GaAs Ni KBr
W ZnS InP FeS2 Sn B Pt PbTe Cu
CaF2 LiF BN InSb Mg2Sn SiO2 CdS Al2O3 Sb
C MgO Zr NaCl Pd Cr      
80095-ELE Electronic Set of 33 Materials Set 4,521.00 Add to Cart

arrow12C. Mineral Block Set

The set is comprised of 28 minerals:

Beryl Be3Al2Si6O18   Anhydrite CaSO4
Cryolite Na3AlF6   Titanium Monoxide TiO
Albite NaAlSi3O8   Rhodonite MnSiO3
Magnesium Oxide MgO   Garnet Spessastine Mn3Al2Si3O12
Fosterite Mg2SiO4   Ferric Oxide Fe2O3
Olivine (MgFe)2SiO4   Almandine Garnet Fe3Al2Si3O12
Kyanite Al2O3SiO2   Pyrite FeS2
Orthoclase KalSi3O8   Willemite Zn2SiO4
Calcite CaCO3   Celestine SrSO4
Fluorite CaF2   Zircon ZrSiO4
Diopside Ca(Mg,Fe)Si2O6   Barite BaSO4
Augite (Ca,Mg,Fe)2(Si,Al)2O   Benitoite BaTiSi3O9
Wollastomite CaSiO3   Apatite Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH)
Gallium Garnet
Gd3Ga5O12   Faraday Cup  
80095-MINA Mineral Block, 25 mm Diameter Set 2,600.00 Add to Cart
80095-MINB Mineral Block, 32 mm Diameter Set 2,600.00 Add to Cart

arrow12D. Rare Earth (RE-Glass) Block:

The set is comprised of 15 standards, 25mm diameter block:

Y Pr Dy Er Ce Eu Ho Tm La
Sm Gd Yb Nd Tb Lu      
80095-REG 15 Rare Earth Re-Glass Block Set 2,200.00 Add to Cart

arrow12E. Rare Earth Block:

The set is comprised of 18 standards:

LaB6 NdF3 TbF3 ErF3 LaF3 SmF3 TbSi2 Tm CeAl2
EuF3 DyF3 TmSi2 PrF3 GdF3 HoF3 YbF3 LuF3 LuSi2
80095-RE25 18 Rare Earth, 25mm Dia. Block Set 1,750.00 Add to Cart
80095-RE32 18 Rare Earth, 32mm Dia. Block Set 1,750.00 Add to Cart

arrow12F. Semi-conductor Block:

The set is comprised of 21 materials:

B Si Cu2S Ge InSb C CaF2 ZnS Ag2S
HgTe Mg2Sn FeSi2 GaP CdS PbTe Al2SiO5 FeS2 GaAs
InP Bi2Se3 Bi2Te3            
80095-SC25 21 Semi-Conductor Materials, 25mm Dia. Set 1,975.00 Add to Cart
80095-SC32 21 Semi-Conductor Materials, 32mm Dia. Set 1,975.00 Add to Cart

arrow12G. Biological Block:

The set is comprised of 18 materials with Faraday cup:

BN Al CaCO33 FeS2 BaSO4 C SiO2 CaSO4 Se
Bi NaCl KCl Ti InP MgO KBr V BaF2

Faraday Cup

80095-BIO25 18 Biological Materials, 25mm Dia Set 1,900.00 Add to Cart
80095-BIO32 18 Biological Materials, 32mm Dia. Set 1,900.00 Add to Cart

arrow12H. 42 Standard Universal Block:

The block is comprised of 42 materials:

Jade Fe SeF2 InAs Ir MgO FeS2 Y Sn
Pt Al2O3 Co Zr Sb Au Ortho Ni Nb
BaF2 HgTe Wollas Cu Mo LaB6 PbTe Ti Zn
Rh CeAl2 Bi V GaP Pd Hf Cr Ge
Ag Ta Mn Se Cd W      
80095-U25 42 Standard Universal, 25mm Dia Block Set 3,200.00 Add to Cart
80095-U32 42 Standard Universal, 32mm Dia Block Set 3,200.00 Add to Cart

arrow12I/ 45 Standard + Faraday Cup Universal Block

The block is comprised of 45 materials and Faraday Cup:

B V GaP Pd Hf Bn Cr Ge Ag
Ta C Mn Se Cd W Jade Fe SrF2
InAs Ir MgO FeS2 Y Sn Pt Al2 O3 Co
Zr Sb Au Ortho Ni Nb BaF2 HgTe  
Wollas Cu Mo LaB6 PbTe Ti Zn Rh CeAl2
Bi and Faraday Cup          
80095-UF25 45 Standard + FC, 25mm Dia Block Set 3,600.00 Add to Cart
80095-UF32 45 Standard + FC, 32mm Dia Block Set 3,600.00 Add to Cart

arrow12J. 37 Standard + Faraday Cup

The block is comprised of 37 materials and a faraday cup.

B Cr  GaP InAs Au C Mn SrF2  Sn
PbTe MgO Fe Zr Sb Bi Albite FeS2 Nb
BaF2 C Si Co Mo Hf Al2O3 Ortho Ni Pd
Ta Wolllas Cu Ag W Ti Zn Cd Pt 
80070-37 37 Standard and FC Dia Block Set 25mm each 3200.00 Add to Cart
80070-37A 37 Standard and FC Dia Block Set 32mm each 3200.00 Add to Cart

arrow12K. 55 Standard+ Faraday Cup

The block is comprised of 55 standards and a faraday cup

BEI Si3N4 Cr GaP Pd Hf Bi B SiO2 
Mn Ge Ag Ta BN Ortho Fe Se Cd 
PbTe C KBr Fe3C SrF2 InAs W Albite CaF2
FeS2 Y Sn Re NaCl Woll Co Zr Sb 
Ir MgO ScNiNb BaF2 Pt Al2O3 Ti 
80070-55 55 Standard and FC Dia Block Set 32mm each 4300.00 Add to Cart

MAC Standards for X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy arrow13arrow13