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Electron Microscopy Sciences

Technical Data Sheets

Evaporated Aluminum On 3mm Grid

EMS Catalog #80044

The nominal value of the effective camera length of an EM operating in the selected area mode is not sufficiently accurate for calculations of lattice spacing.  The actual value of camera length must be calibrated at the same accelerating voltage and objective lens setting by reference to a known substance with well-defined diffraction spacings.  Normal specimens are evaporated films of Aluminum or Thallous Chloride.  Very small crystallite size yields ring patterns suitable for calibration.

In order to use a standard in electron diffraction properly, several conditions are necessary:

  1. After obtaining the pattern of an unknown, it is necessary to expose the known standard to the same electrical and magnetic conditions, specifically the same lens current or high voltage.
  2. The specimen must be in the same position as the unknown had been.  Small movements of the stage are permissible in order to obtain a clearer pattern of the standard.

After developing the diffraction plates, the standard is measured first.  The indices are assigned per the attached ASTM “d” spacings.  After assigning the spacings, calculate “K” using the formula K = Sd; where “K” is a constant that represents wave length of the beam, camera length and associated variable crystallographic data, “S” is the diameter of the ring in centimeters and “d” is the interplanar spacing in angstroms.  The value for “K” for the first five lines should be within 1% of each other.  Use the mean value of “K”.

Next, the pattern of the unknown is measured, and using “K”, determined from the standard, the “d” spacings of the unknown are calculated.  It is then necessary to establish identity of the unknown from the ASTM published data.

Aluminum, Al (Cubic): ASTM "d" Spacings

Miller Indices
hkl
Lattice Spacings d
(Å)
Indentity
I
Lattice Constant a
(Å)
111 2.338 100 4.050
200 2.024 47 4.048
220 1.431 22 4.047
311 1.221 24 4.0489
222 1.1690 7 4.0495
400 1.0124 2 4.0495
331 0.9289 8 4.0490
420 0.9055 8 4.0495
422 0.8266 8 4.0495
511 --- --- ---
440 --- --- ---
531 --- --- ---

Average unit cell from last five lines... 4.0494

Online Ordering

Diffraction Standard Evaporated Thallous Chloride or 3mm Grid are available online from the EMS Catalog. For ordering or product information, click here.